Everything you need to know about starting to invest in stocks, including what makes for great beginner stocks in your starter portfolio.

Matthew

Updated: Aug 18, 2021 at 2:42PM

If youre ready to start in the but arent sure which stocks to choose, youve come to the right place. There are a few characteristics of stocks that are good for beginners, as well as some practices beginners should specifically avoid when selecting the first companies for their portfolios.

Heres a rundown of what every should look for and stay away from when choosing your first stocks, as well as a few examples of excellent beginner-friendly stocks to help get your search started.

Assess your goals for investing

First off, ask yourself why you are in the . Do you want to build wealth for retirement, save for your kids education, or just collect some money for a rainy day? A general rule of thumb is that you shouldnt invest in stocks with money youll need within the next three to five years, and longer time horizons are even better. The can fluctuate quite a bit over shorter periods, so before you invest, be sure you understand your and that youre mentally prepared to ride out the ups and downs.

Getting started investing in stocks

Before you start in stocks, youll need to open a . You can compare the features of some of the best online brokers to find one that is the best fit for you. Some offer excellent resources for beginners such as educational tools, access to research, and more. Also, be aware that while basic online is generally free at all major brokerages, many have other fees you should know about, and some have minimum amounts.

What makes an a good ?

You might hear experienced investors talk about the concept of a wide moat, especially if youre reading anything about Warren Buffetts style. Just as a wide moat around a castle makes it difficult for enemies to invade, a sustainable competitive advantage will prevent competitors from stealing a companys share. Thats the kind of moat a great beginner will have.

Such an advantage can take many forms, but they arent terribly difficult to spot if you know what to look for. The majority of sustainable competitive advantages typically fall into one of these categories:

  • Network effects: In simple terms, a network effect occurs as more people use a service or product and the product or service itself becomes more valuable and desirable as a result. Think of companies such as Facebook (NASDAQ:FB). As more and more people join Facebook, it becomes more difficult for people not to use the platform in their daily lives.
  • Cost advantages: A business can have a few different types of cost advantages. For example, an efficient distribution network can make it cheaper for a company to get its product around the country. A well-known brand name can give a company the ability to charge more than its rivals. A proprietary manufacturing process can make it cheaper to produce a product.
  • Intangible assets: In addition to a brand name, patents are a great example of an intangible asset that can protect a company against its competitors. For example, its portfolio of more than 44,000 patents is one of the main reasons BlackBerry (NYSE:BB) still has quite a bit of value, even though it doesnt sell many phones these days.
  • Sector leadership: Most of the best starter stocks are either leaders in their respective fields or very close to it.

3 basic metrics every should know

Knowing how to identify great businesses is more important than being able to identify cheap stocks. A great business will typically be a good long-term performer, even at a bit of an expensive valuation. On the other hand, a bad business you invest in at a cheap valuation will seldom work out well.

Once youve learned how to find good businesses, some basic metrics can help you narrow them down:

  • P/E ratio: The price-to-earnings ratio is the most widely cited valuation metric. Simply divide a companys current share price by its past 12 months worth of earnings. You can also use the projected earnings over the next 12 months to calculate the forward P/E ratio.
  • PEG ratio: The price-to-earnings-growth ratio levels the playing field for P/E shortfalls. Simply divide the companys P/E ratio by its projected earnings growth rate. For example, a company with a P/E of 30 and a 15% expected growth rate has a PEG ratio of 2.0.
  • Payout ratio: The payout ratio measures the annual dividend rate expressed as a percentage of its earnings, which sheds light on dividend stability. For example, if a company paid out $1 in dividends per share last year and earned $2, it has a 50% payout ratio.

You can learn many other metrics, some of which can help you find value stocks and some of which can help you evaluate fast-growing companies or growth stocks.

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Image source: Getty Images.

Stocks beginners should avoid

The last thing we need to cover is what you should avoid as a beginning investor. Investing in the wrong type of stock can make your portfolios value look like a roller coaster and can even cause you to lose your entire investment.

With that in mind, heres what youd be wise to stay away from at first:

  • Rapidly growing companies: This is especially true for companies that have yet to turn a profit. Growth investing can be a great way to build wealth, but it can be volatile. Its a good idea to wait until youve built up a base for your portfolio and understand stocks better before you try to invest in the next big thing.
  • Penny stocks: Loosely defined as stocks with a market value of less than $200 million, share prices of less than $5, or dont trade on major exchanges, penny stocks should be avoided by all investors, not just beginners.
  • IPOs: IPOs, or initial public offerings, are how companies become publicly traded. Investing in newly public companies can be highly volatile and is generally not a good way for beginners to buy stocks.
  • Businesses you dont understand: Heres a great rule of thumb that works for beginners and expert investors alike. If you cant clearly explain in a sentence or two what a company does and how it makes money, dont invest in it. There are literally thousands of publicly traded companies to choose from, and you should be able to find plenty of opportunities in easy-to-understand businesses.

How to get started investing in the stock market

Once youve decided that you want to buy stocks, the next step is to open a brokerage account, fund the account, and buy shares. After youve done that, its important to keep a long-term mentality. For example, if your stocks go down, it can be very tempting to panic and sell. Remember how carefully you chose them and avoid selling your stocks without fully exploring the companys situation.

Randi Zuckerberg, a former director of market development and spokeswoman for Facebook and sister to its CEO, Mark Zuckerberg, is a member of The Motley Fools board of directors. Matthew Frankel, CFP has no position in any of the stocks mentioned. The Motley Fool owns shares of and recommends Facebook. The Motley Fool recommends BlackBerry. The Motley Fool has a disclosure policy.

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